Sultan Cirebon IV (1808-1810; died 1814) [son of Sultan Anom III] Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Abu'l Fatah (1651-1680; died 1692) [son] Muhammad Rafiuddin (1816-1832; died 1900) [son of Muhammad Tsafiuddin]
After Majapahit founded its new capital in 1293, the Kingdom of Java began to exercise its authority on other islands. His predecessor at the court of Singhasari had begun to extend his influence on Java during the reign of Rajasa (1222 - 47). Evidence for this are two Javanese chronicles called Desavarnana and Pararaton as well as the writings of the Portuguese pharmacist Ives de Sousa, who visited Java in the early 16th century. The influence of the powerful Singhasari king, called Krtanagara, was concretized by his conquest of Java in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The Padang Roco inscription from Central Sumatra in 1286, in which Krtanagara is referred to as the "great king" or "king Maharadhiraja," illustrates his ability to subjugate various kings of Java. In the inscription, the Sumatran king Maulivarmadeva is only referred to as the great king or m Maharajah. Desavarnana is evidently to be described as the result of his divine manifestation. Today, historians believe that Krtanagara's disturbance of the balance of power in the archipelago earned him the title of "greatest king" or "greatest maharajah" in Sumatra, Sumatran, and Java. The kingdom and empire of the Majapahit concentrated on the island of Java, the largest and most populous island of Southeast Asia. Its greatest ruler was Maharadhiraja, who lived in East Java between 1293 and 1500 and whose reign (1350 - 1389) marked the height of the empire. The kingdom ruled large parts of Central and East Java as well as parts of West Java and Southeast Indonesia. The local wealth came from the extensive cultivation of wet rice, the international wealth from the spice trade. The Paddy culture required extensive work on canals, canals and terraces, but the local wealth also came in the form of gold, silver, copper, gold and silver coins as well as gold coins. Other local lines could be dominated by a line that could mobilize labor in more than one basin. Sailendra mobilized labor through the symbolic power associated with Hindu and Buddhist rituals, including the use of fire as a symbol of wealth and power in the form of gold, silver and gold coins. King Samaratungga was also known as Sri Maharaja SamarottunGGa of the Syailendra Dynasty and was the third king of his dynasty. He led an evolving kingdom with a large number of temples and temples in the capital Surabaya. Like other Javanese kings, the kings of the Sailendra dynasty believed that the king, as his subjects, had divine power over all living gods. During his reign Samaratungga initiated the construction of what is now the Borobudur Temple in Magelang, Central Java, which was completed around 825 AD. He expelled the Hindu kingdom of Mataram from the northern part of Central Jakarta and successfully conquered its southern parts. He succeeded the Buddhist king Syailendra and therefore controlled Central Java for more than a century (750-850 AD). Sailendra (which means "lord of the mountain" in Sanskrit) was the first of a series of dynasties that emerged in Central Java at the end of the eighth century. Although each dynasty adopted different faiths, the temples in the northern part of central Indonesia were Hindu, while the temples in the southern part were Buddhist. Sailendra cultivated rice intensively and had an administrative hierarchy that controlled the allocation of water for irrigation. He participated in trade with China and India on the Spice Road, but his participation never reached the level of Srivijaya. Although the economy was based on rice cultivation, he maintained commercial and marital relations with the Kingdom of Srijaya and had access to the ports on the north coast of Java. Mataram fell to the Sumatran-based kingdom of Sriwijaya, which invaded Java in the 11th century. Under Airlangga, a semi-legendary figure who formed the first royal connection to the island of Bali, Javanese power began its resurrection. In the role of unifier, he divided the kingdom between his two sons and created Janggala (East) and Airlangga (West). In inscriptions from 1447, 1473 and 1486, he continued to call himself king or king, but no longer spoke explicitly of other islands. Javanese shipping passed through the Muslim-ruled cities of Bali and Sumatra in the East Java Sea. He told pire that he ruled Java until the end of the 14th century, after which his power began to wane. This report is the only known account of his life and rule in the history of Java and one of the most important sources of information about the life of the king.