Invasive BCI requires surgical intervention to implant electrodes beneath the scalp for transmitting brain signals. Partially invasive BCI devices are implanted within skull, but they are placed externally of brain, not inside gray matter. In the early days of BCI research, another significant obstacle to using electroencephalography as a brain-machine interface was the significant amount of training required for users before they could operate the technology. The story of the Brain-Computer Interface begins with the discovery by Hans Berger of electrical activity of the human brain, and development of the electroencephalogram . For over a half-century, psychologists, linguists, neuroscientists, and other experts in human behavior have claimed that the human brain works as a computer. A handful of cognitive scientists--notably Anthony Chemero at the University of Cincinnati, author of the book "Radical Embodied Cognitive Science" --now reject completely the idea that the human brain works like a computer. Predictably, only a few years after the advent of computing in the 1940s, it was said that the brain worked like a computer, the role of the physical hardware being played by the brain itself, with our thoughts serving as software. Although the mathematician John von Neumann admitted that very little was really known about the role of the brain in human reasoning and memory, he did draw parallel after parallel between components of the computing machines of his time and components of the human brain. Well-controlled studies have shown the virtues of relying on brain-computer interfaces for this kind of analysis. In 2020, researchers at University of California used a computational system related to brain-machine interfaces to convert brainwaves to sentences. A brain-computer interface , sometimes called a neural control interface , a mind-machine interface , direct neural interface , or a brain-machine interface , is the direct pathway for communications between a modified or wired brain and an external device. The annual BCI research prize is awarded to recognize outstanding, innovative research in brain-computer interfaces. No matter how hard they try, brain scientists and cognitive psychologists are not going to be able to locate in the brain a copy of Beethovens Fifth Symphony -- nor are copies of words, pictures, grammar rules, or any other type of environmental stimulus. Whereas computers actually retain accurate copies of data - copies that can remain unmodified over a prolonged period even when power is turned off - the brain retains our intelligence only for so long as we keep it alive.