Eps 1712: Indian law related to Casual sexiem at sport feild

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Jonathan Ruiz

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For over half a century, sports officials looked to science for clear differences between men and women to define who was fit to compete in female sports. The science of sex provides compelling evidence that no such clear biological demarcation exists to separate men and women.
For purposes of this Convention, the term discrimination against women shall mean any difference, exclusion, or limitation made based on sex that has the effect or the aim of affecting or cancelling the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise of women, regardless of marital status, on the basis of equality between men and women, human rights, and fundamental freedoms, in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil, or any other fields. States Parties should adopt all relevant measures to remove discrimination against women in the area of health to guarantee, on a basis of equality of men and women, access to health services, including those related to family planning. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to provide women, on an equal footing with men and free from all discrimination, with opportunities to represent their Governments internationally and participate in the work of international organizations.
States Parties should accord women the same rights as men in regard to the citizenship of their children. Articles 10, 11, and 13, respectively, reaffirm the rights of women not to be discriminated against in education, employment, and economic and social activities.
In accordance with the COIs human rights commitment, it advises the World Athletics Federation and other sports governance bodies to cease regulations which infringe on womens rights to non-discrimination, confidentiality, and integrity. Policies by sports governing bodies that promote the discriminatory treatment of female athletes who vary in sex characteristics at sports events are also at odds with basic rights protections, and they invite doctors, governments, and national sports authorities to engage in human rights violations against such women.
In contexts in which no such laws exist, enact legislation delineating athletes rights, including the right to compete in sports without being subjected to violence or discrimination. The laws the EEOC enforces prohibit an employer or other covered entity from employing nondiscriminatory hiring policies and practices that disproportionately adversely affect applicants or employees of a specific race, color, religion, gender , or national origin, or on an individual with a disability or class of individuals with disabilities, where the policies or practices at issue are unrelated to the job and are essential to the operations of the business. Under laws enforced by the EEOC, it is unlawful to discriminate against an individual on account of that persons race, color, religion, sex , national origin, age , national origin, age , age, disability, or genetic information.
Although state and federal equal opportunity laws do not explicitly prohibit employers from making inquiries before hiring that involve, or disproportionately screen out, members on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, religion, or age, those inquiries can be used as evidence that the employer intended to discriminate, unless the questions asked are justified by some commercial objective. For example, an employer can use such information for a purpose related to health and occupational safety, but only when doing so does not amount to illegal discrimination.
Making means that an employer cannot discriminate in matters relating to hiring, firing, promotions, and wages. Most of these policies would be considered to be in violation of Title IX if recipients cannot articulate a legitimate reason to categorize individuals based on gender. Title IX bars recipients of Federal financial aid from discriminating based on sex in educational programs or activities.
Title IX has proven to be a useful tool for remedying employment discrimination based on sex in educational programs and activities. Title IX legislation has allowed women and girls at educational institutions to improve their opportunities for different sports that are available to them now. Some also used sports for personal empowerment, working towards womens rights, education, and health and well-being.
The education sector is only one of the many areas in which disparate treatment has been documented, but as education provides access to employment and economic security, discrimination here is doubly devastating to women. Barbara Levy, a General Counsel at a major multinational and member of the Women, Influence and Power in Law group in the United Kingdom , says that while there are a very large number of women reaching the mid-level of the organization, only a small minority make it all the way to the top. As Denis-Smith points out, although 490 women QCs have been appointed over the last 100 years, just five of them were BAME women.
The traditions of Islamic modesty when it comes to dressing, and requiring that female sports be played in single-sex environments, have made sports more challenging for the religiously-minded women who follow it.
In order to counteract rumors and to make sure that only women participate in female events, the International Olympic Committee and other sports federations, including the IAAF at that time, introduced procedures for testing female athletes on their sexuality. A proposal that transgender women athletes be allowed to compete in their own category in order to eliminate any unfair advantages was challenged. Title IX legislation gives women athletes a leg up in helping support a position that women should receive the same respect and consideration that their sports are taken seriously, as seriously as mens sports are taken seriously.
The Title IX legislation just allowed the institution of having equal treatment and opportunities in sports regardless of the gender of a person, but there still had to be a shift in attitudes by the community, sports fans, and people who participated in sports, of course. The legislation states federal funds may be withheld from a school engaging in deliberate sex discrimination in providing curricula, counseling, academic support, or general educational opportunities; this includes interscholastic or varsity sports. No individual within the United States shall, based on sex, be excluded from participation, denied benefits, or be discriminated against, under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial aid.